Operating System is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources. It provides common services for computer. Operating systems also used in mobiles and tablets.
Android is one of operating system that used in mobiles and tablets. Android is developed by Google. It is based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software, and is designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. Google also has developed Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars and Android OS for wrist watches.
Android is the most used OS in smartphones all over the world. Its easiness and simplicity makes it more reliable. Android’s version history begins when Google released publicly Android Beta on November 5, 2007. First commercial version, Android 1.0, was released on September 23, 2008. Android is continually developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance, and it has seen several updates to its base operating system since the initial release.Android is the most used OS in smartphones all over the world. Its easiness and simplicity makes it more reliable.
| Linux kernel|
|No Codename||1.0||2.1||September 23, 2008||1|
|Petit Four||1.1||2.6||February 9, 2009||2|
|Cupcake||1.5||2.6.27||April 27, 2009||3|
|Donut||1.6||2.6.29||September 15, 2009||4|
|Eclair||2.0 – 2.1||2.6.29||October 26, 2009||5 – 7|
|Froyo||2.2 – 2.2.3||2.6.32||May 20, 2010||8|
|Gingerbread||2.3 – 2.3.7||2.6.35||December 6, 2010||9 – 10|
|Honeycomb||3.0 – 3.2.6||2.6.36||February 22, 2011||11 – 13|
|Ice Cream Sandwich||4.0 – 4.0.4||3.0.1||October 18, 2011||14 – 15|
|Jelly Bean||4.1 – 4.3.1||3.0.31 – 3.4.39||July 9, 2012||16 – 18|
|KitKat||4.4 – 4.4.4||3.10||October 31, 2013||19 – 20|
|Lollipop||5.0 – 5.1.1||3.16||November 12, 2014||21 – 22|
|Marshmallow||6.0 – 6.0.1||3.18||October 5, 2015||23|
|Nougat||7.0 – 7.1.2||4.4||August 22, 2016||24 – 25|
|Oreo||8.0 – 8.1||4.10||August 21, 2017||26 – 27|
|Pie||9.0||4.4.107, 4.9.84, and 4.14.42||August 6, 2018||28|
Versions Android 1.0 and 1.1 were not released under specific code names, although Android 1.1 was unofficially known as Petit Four.
Android code names are confectionery-themed and have been in alphabetical order since 2009’s Android 1.5 Cupcake. The most recent version of Android is Android 9 Pie, which was released in August 2018.
Android “Q” is the upcoming tenth major release and the 17th version of the Android mobile operating system. The final release of Android Q is scheduled for release in the third quarter of 2019.
Android Q features include:
- Native support for fold-able phones
New and improved UI customizations with changeable themes, icons and fonts (in Stock Android)
- Allows users to control when apps have permission to see their location: never, only when the app is in use (running), or all the time (when in the background).
- New permissions to access in background photos, video, and audio files
- Built-in screen recorder
- Background apps can no longer jump into the foreground.
- Improved privacy: limited access to non-resettable device identifiers
- Sharing shortcuts, which allow sharing content with a contact directly
- Floating settings panel, that allow changing system settings directly from apps
- Dynamic depth format for photos, which allow changing background blur after taking a photo
- Support for the AV1 video codec, the HDR10+ video format, and the Opus audio codec
- A native MIDI API, allowing interaction with music controllers
- Better support for biometric authentication in apps
- Support for the WPA3 Wi-Fi security protocol.
Android is developed by Google until the latest changes and updates are ready to be released, at which point the source code is made available to the Android Open Source Project (AOSP), an open source initiative led by Google. The AOSP code can be found without modification on select devices, mainly the Nexus and Pixel series of devices. The source code is, in turn, customized and adapted by original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) to run on their hardware. Also, Android’s source code does not contain the often-proprietary device drivers that are needed for certain hardware components. As a result, most Android devices, including Google’s own, ultimately ship with a combination of free and open source and proprietary software, with the software required for accessing Google services falling into the latter category.