Bootstrap is a free and open source software (FOSS). It contains CSS and JavaScript-based design templates for forms, buttons, navigation, typography and other interface components.

 Mark Otto and Jacob Thornton
Mark Otto and Jacob Thornton

Bootstrap originally named Twitter Blueprint, developed by Mark Otto and Jacob Thornton on Twitter as a framework. Before it various libraries were used for interface development, which led to inconsistencies and a high maintenance burden.

On January 31, 2012, Bootstrap 2 was released, which added built-in support for Glyphicons, various new components and changes to many of exiting components. This version supports responsive web design. This means web pages dynamically adjusts with different devices (desktop, tablet, mobile phone). The next major version Bootstrap 3 was released on August 19, 2013.

Mark Otto announced Bootstrap 4 on October 29, 2014. The first alpha version of Bootstrap 4 was released on August 19, 2015. The first beta version was released on 10 August 2017. Mark suspended work on Bootstrap 3 on September 6, 2016, to free up time to work on Bootstrap 4. Bootstrap 4 was finalized on January 18, 2018.

Bootstrap 4 is latest version, more adjustable and easier. Bootstrap 4 supports the latest versions of the Google Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, Opera, and Safari (except on Windows).

Bootstrap 4
Bootstrap 4

Bootstrap is a web framework to simplify the development of web pages. The primary purpose of adding it to a web project is to apply Bootstrap’s choices of color, size, font and layout to that project. As such, the primary factor is whether the developers in charge find those choices to their liking. Once added to a project, Bootstrap provides basic style definitions for all HTML elements. The end result is a uniform appearance for prose, tables and form elements across web browsers. Developers can also add CSS elements defined in Bootstrap for further customization as well.

The most eminent components of Bootstrap are its layout components, as they affect an entire web page. The basic layout component is called “Container”, as every other element in the page is placed in it. Developers can choose between a fixed-width container and a fluid-width container. While the latter always fills the width of the web page, the former uses one of the four predefined fixed widths, depending on the size of the screen showing the page:

  • Smaller than 576 pixels
  • 576ā€“768 pixels
  • 768ā€“992 pixels
  • 992ā€“1200 pixels
  • Larger than 1200 pixels