Operating Systems – Android

Operating System is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources. It provides common services for computer. Operating systems also used in mobiles and tablets.

Android is one of operating system that used in mobiles and tablets. Android is developed by Google. It is based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software, and is designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. Google also has developed Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars and Android OS for wrist watches.

Android is the most used OS in smartphones all over the world. Its easiness and simplicity makes it more reliable. Android’s version history begins when Google released publicly Android Beta on November 5, 2007. First commercial version, Android 1.0, was released on September 23, 2008. Android is continually developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance, and it has seen several updates to its base operating system since the initial release.Android is the most used OS in smartphones all over the world. Its easiness and simplicity makes it more reliable.

Code Names

Linux kernel
Initial release
No Codename 1.0 2.1 September 23, 2008 1
Petit Four 1.1 2.6 February 9, 2009 2
Cupcake 1.5 2.6.27 April 27, 2009 3
Donut 1.6 2.6.29 September 15, 2009 4
Eclair 2.0 – 2.1 2.6.29 October 26, 2009 5 – 7
Froyo 2.2 – 2.2.3 2.6.32 May 20, 2010 8
Gingerbread 2.3 – 2.3.7 2.6.35 December 6, 2010 9 – 10
Honeycomb 3.0 – 3.2.6 2.6.36 February 22, 2011 11 – 13
Ice Cream Sandwich 4.0 – 4.0.4 3.0.1 October 18, 2011 14 – 15
Jelly Bean 4.1 – 4.3.1 3.0.31 – 3.4.39 July 9, 2012 16 – 18
KitKat 4.4 – 4.4.4 3.10 October 31, 2013 19 – 20
Lollipop 5.0 – 5.1.1 3.16 November 12, 2014 21 – 22
Marshmallow 6.0 – 6.0.1 3.18 October 5, 2015 23
Nougat 7.0 – 7.1.2 4.4 August 22, 2016 24 – 25
Oreo 8.0 – 8.1 4.10 August 21, 2017 26 – 27
Pie 9.0 4.4.107, 4.9.84, and 4.14.42 August 6, 2018 28
Android Q 10.0 29

Versions Android 1.0 and 1.1 were not released under specific code names, although Android 1.1 was unofficially known as Petit Four.

Android code names are confectionery-themed and have been in alphabetical order since 2009’s Android 1.5 Cupcake. The most recent version of Android is Android 9 Pie, which was released in August 2018.

Android “Q”

AndroidQ” is the upcoming tenth major release and the 17th version of the Android mobile operating system. The final release of Android Q is scheduled for release in the third quarter of 2019.

Android Q features include:

  • Native support for fold-able phones
    New and improved UI customizations with changeable themes, icons and fonts (in Stock Android)
  • Allows users to control when apps have permission to see their location: never, only when the app is in use (running), or all the time (when in the background).
  • New permissions to access in background photos, video, and audio files
  • Built-in screen recorder
  • Background apps can no longer jump into the foreground.
  • Improved privacy: limited access to non-resettable device identifiers
  • Sharing shortcuts, which allow sharing content with a contact directly
  • Floating settings panel, that allow changing system settings directly from apps
  • Dynamic depth format for photos, which allow changing background blur after taking a photo
  • Support for the AV1 video codec, the HDR10+ video format, and the Opus audio codec
  • A native MIDI API, allowing interaction with music controllers
  • Better support for biometric authentication in apps
  • Support for the WPA3 Wi-Fi security protocol.
Android version usage history


Android is developed by Google until the latest changes and updates are ready to be released, at which point the source code is made available to the Android Open Source Project (AOSP), an open source initiative led by Google. The AOSP code can be found without modification on select devices, mainly the Nexus and Pixel series of devices. The source code is, in turn, customized and adapted by original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) to run on their hardware. Also, Android’s source code does not contain the often-proprietary device drivers that are needed for certain hardware components. As a result, most Android devices, including Google’s own, ultimately ship with a combination of free and open source and proprietary software, with the software required for accessing Google services falling into the latter category.


Solar Panels-The Power of Sun

Sun is a great source of energy but very little used by our world. It currently fuses about 600 million tons of hydrogen into helium every second, converting 4 million tons of matter into energy every second as a result. This energy, which can take between 10,000 and 170,000 years to escape from its core, is the source of the Sun’s light and heat.

Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light. On Earth, sunlight is filtered through Earth’s atmosphere, and is obvious as daylight when the Sun is above the horizon. When the direct solar radiation is not blocked by clouds, it is experienced as sunshine, a combination of bright light and radiant heat. When it is blocked by clouds or reflects off other objects, it is experienced as diffused light. The World Meteorological Organization uses the term “sunshine duration” to mean the cumulative time during which an area receives direct irradiance from the Sun of at least 120 watts per square meter. Other sources indicate an “Average over the entire earth” of “164 Watts per square meter over a 24-hour day.

For the first time, to create an electrical charge from sunlight with some materials was observed by  Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel. Though the initial solar panels were too inefficient for even simple electric devices. In 1873 Willoughby Smith discovered that the charge could be caused by light hitting selenium. After this discovery, William Grylls Adams and Richard Evans Day published “The action of light on selenium” in 1876, describing the experiment.

However, these solar panels were very inefficient, especially compared to coal-fired power plants. In 1939, Russell Ohl created the solar cell design that is used in many modern solar panels. He patented his design in 1941. In 1954, this design was first used by Bell Labs to create the first commercially viable silicon solar cell.

Each module is ranked by its DC output power under standard test conditions (STC), and typically ranges from 100 to 365 Watts (W). The efficiency of a module determines the area of a module given the same rated output – an 8% efficient 230 W module will have twice the area of a 16% efficient 230 W module. There are a few commercially available solar modules that exceed efficiency of 24%

This much cheaper and easier way to produce electricity. To date it is easy to get efficient solar panels with various rating. You can select as your demand of electricity.

jQuery Post Splitter (2.5.8)

Loaring @louring

We are launching a new version with a new feature on request by Loaring.
Loaring described a confusion: Instead of “scrolling back to top when each slide loads”, is it possible to START at the top? It’s more logic always starting at the top – scrolling is a bit confusing.

Fahad replied: So instead of slow scroll, we can immediately start from top. I will check this possibility in next version.

After some time Fahad released next version with this feature.

Now you can use “scroll to top” option with numeric value. To use this feature go to options check “scroll to top” box and add some value as you want. For example 5 means 5 seconds delay to scroll up. If you change it to 1 so, page will scroll up in 1 second and if you want to remove the delay set the value to 0.


In the case you want to remember your value but you do not want implement at the movement just uncheck “scroll to top” box.

You can watch this to get more guidance.

jQuery Post Splitter (2.5.8)

Introduction to Bootstrap

Bootstrap is a free and open source software (FOSS). It contains CSS and JavaScript-based design templates for forms, buttons, navigation, typography and other interface components.

 Mark Otto and Jacob Thornton
Mark Otto and Jacob Thornton

Bootstrap originally named Twitter Blueprint, developed by Mark Otto and Jacob Thornton on Twitter as a framework. Before it various libraries were used for interface development, which led to inconsistencies and a high maintenance burden.

On January 31, 2012, Bootstrap 2 was released, which added built-in support for Glyphicons, various new components and changes to many of exiting components. This version supports responsive web design. This means web pages dynamically adjusts with different devices (desktop, tablet, mobile phone). The next major version Bootstrap 3 was released on August 19, 2013.

Mark Otto announced Bootstrap 4 on October 29, 2014. The first alpha version of Bootstrap 4 was released on August 19, 2015. The first beta version was released on 10 August 2017. Mark suspended work on Bootstrap 3 on September 6, 2016, to free up time to work on Bootstrap 4. Bootstrap 4 was finalized on January 18, 2018.

Bootstrap 4 is latest version, more adjustable and easier. Bootstrap 4 supports the latest versions of the Google Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, Opera, and Safari (except on Windows).

Bootstrap 4
Bootstrap 4

Bootstrap is a web framework to simplify the development of web pages. The primary purpose of adding it to a web project is to apply Bootstrap’s choices of color, size, font and layout to that project. As such, the primary factor is whether the developers in charge find those choices to their liking. Once added to a project, Bootstrap provides basic style definitions for all HTML elements. The end result is a uniform appearance for prose, tables and form elements across web browsers. Developers can also add CSS elements defined in Bootstrap for further customization as well.

The most eminent components of Bootstrap are its layout components, as they affect an entire web page. The basic layout component is called “Container”, as every other element in the page is placed in it. Developers can choose between a fixed-width container and a fluid-width container. While the latter always fills the width of the web page, the former uses one of the four predefined fixed widths, depending on the size of the screen showing the page:

  • Smaller than 576 pixels
  • 576–768 pixels
  • 768–992 pixels
  • 992–1200 pixels
  • Larger than 1200 pixels

Washing Hands-A good habit for good life

A boy is washing his hands
A boy washing his hands

It is a very popular proverb “A healthy brain is in healthy body”. Washing hands plays a central role in our health. This saves us from various diseases. If we don’t wash hands properly, we might face stomach and throat diseases. Being human we should keep ourselves neat and clean. Hands should be washed with soap.

The Best Way to Wash Hands

Here’s how to scrub those germs away. Teach this to your kids — or better yet, wash your hands together often so they learn how important this good habit is:

  1. Wet your hands with clean, running water (warm or cold). Make sure the water is not too hot for little hands.
  2. Use soap and lather up for about 20 seconds. Antibacterial soap is not a must any soap will do.
  3. Make sure you get in between your fingers  on the backs of hands, and under the nails where germs like to hang out. And don’t forget the wrists!
  4. Rinse and dry well with a clean towel

When should we wash hands?

To stop the spread of germs in your family, make regular hand washing a rule for everyone. It’s especially important:

  • before eating and cooking.
  • after using the bathroom.
  • after cleaning around the house.
  • after touching animals, including family pets.
  • before and after visiting or taking care of any sick friends or relatives.
  • after blowing one’s nose, coughing, or sneezing.
  • after being outside (playing, gardening, walking the dog, etc.)

Benefits of washing hand

Washing hands saves us from illnesses such as common cold, meningitis, bronchitis, the flu, hepatitis A, and many types of diarrhea.

Diaries-Your Best Friend

Often an idea comes to mind but after a movement it has gone. And you never can that idea back. Sometimes we want to share our thoughts, but no one has time to listen you and if you have a secret so you cannot share with everyone or you cannot trust anyone. So, get a diary and share with it everything you want. It keeps your secrets as secrets, saves your thoughts and all the things you wrote.


Diary writing is considered a good habit and a hobby too in ancient times. People wrote their daily observation, experience and incidents. Their coming generation told their children those precious and worth experience. They used paper Diaries, they bought from book store or made themselves.

Old Diaries

In this fast and modern time no one has time to spend writing diary. To date some people, write diary but they are in a small figure. Modern people manage their diary in modern way. They use a digital diary, online or offline. For a digital diary, just browse your app market and choose your desired diary.

And modern shape of diary is blog writing but is a public forum and every blog visitor can read it. It is not very secure and safe because your data is on a risk of determination or hacking. So always choose a diary from book store.

Hobbies-Save Your Time

Many people waste their time in several things such as just chatting on
social media and wandering here and there without any reason. Some time they also waste other’s time. They don’t schedule their day, as they can’t do any work properly and day passes away.

Good hobbies can save your time, good for your health or can improve your skills. Your hobby introduces your personality. So, it’s very important that which hobby you should choose. Always choose a hobby that beneficent for you. Many people choose book reading, collecting coins, tickets, or gardening etc.


I like book reading in free time. I read many books about literature and history. I also like meaning full stories. I read books regularly every day. I have read almost up to 50 books and continuously reading. Books can improve your personality, thinking and decision power. But it is depending on your choice so, always choose beneficent books.

Introduction to HTML

HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language, used to make web pages and web application. With HTML constructs, images and other objects. HTML provides a means to create structured documents denoting structural semantics for text such as headings, paragraphs, lists, links, quotes and other items.


Web browsers receive HTML documents from a web server or from local storage and render the documents into multimedia web pages. HTML describes the structure of a web page semantically and originally included cues for the appearance of the document.

In HTML operations used some tags, written using angle brackets. Tags such as <img /> and <input /> directly introduce content into the page. Other tags such as <p> surround and provide information about document text and may include other tags as sub-elements. Similarly, <h> tag used for headings and for desired size a number can be assigned with <h> for example <h1> or <h2>.

HTML Example 

HTML can embed programs written in a scripting language such as JavaScript, which affects the behavior and content of web pages.

HTML versions

HTML 2.01995
HTML 3.21997
HTML 4.011999

Shopping-Modern days

This so easy to buy something to date if you have money. Just go to a shopping mall, a super store or a boutique and get what you want. You can pay cash or use your credit card if you don’t have cash. Paper currency made it easier.


Credit Card

If you are going for shopping for a special event and you cannot handle a bundle of currency notes or you are out of cash, so can use just a card to make payments. It is based on cardholder’s promise to card issuer to payment the merchants. These cards issued by banks and banks pay to merchants form your account. It also has a few more features.

Using a credit card

Online Shopping

This is the easiest way to get your desired products at your doorstep. Just browse an online shopping website, select your desired products, add them to cart and conform your deal by filling a simple form. In this you can chose method of payment as you want like you can pay through your ATM card, credit card or cash on delivery.

Shopping-Old Days

Every day you buy something for you or for others. Imagine if there was no currency how you could buy food, clothes etc. You were thinking how was the feeling that there is no currency and you want to buy some food. There was an Ancient system which allow you to trade with others. It was not so comfortable but there was no second option. The name of that system called BARTER SYSTEM.

What was The Barter System?

Before the invention of currency people exchanged goods and services and got goods and services in return. For example, if you have some cotton and you need some flour you will go to market and give cotton to shopkeeper and in the return, he will give you flour.

Barter System

Difficulties in The Barter system!

It was a useful system but there were some difficulties in this system. You must have to borrow a huge load of goods with you and it was not easy and comfortable enough. And need a big labor if you want a big deal.

Golden and Silver Coins

After using barter system for a long time, golden and silver coins declared as currency. According to the history in 643 to 630 B.C. Lydians started producing coins, made with mixture of gold and silver, and then started a metallic coinage. Some nations prefer silver coins on golden coins. This currency made trade much easier than barter system, but there was also a problem with this currency that it was also hard to handle a big amount for a single person.

Gold and Silver Coins