Web browsers receive HTML documents from a web server or from local storage and render the documents into multimedia web pages. HTML describes the structure of a web page semantically and originally included cues for the appearance of the document.
HTML elements are the building blocks of HTML pages. With HTML constructs, images and other objects such as interactive forms may be embedded into the rendered page. HTML provides a means to create structured documents by denoting structural semantics for text such as headings, paragraphs, lists, links, quotes and other items. HTML elements are delineated by tags, written using angle brackets. Tags such as and directly introduce content into the page. Other tags such as
surround and provide information about document text and may include other tags as sub-elements. Browsers do not display the HTML tags, but use them to interpret the content of the page. There are many properties for HTML but in this article you will learn about some properties to wrap text around circle.
Mobile phones, particularly the smartphones that have become
our inseparable companions today, are relatively new.
A handheld mobile radio telephone service was envisioned in the early stages of radio engineering. In 1917, Finnish inventor Eric Tigerstedt filed a patent for a “pocket-size folding telephone with a very thin carbon microphone”. Early predecessors of cellular phones included analog radio communications from ships and trains. The race to create truly portable telephone devices began after World War II, with developments taking place in many countries. The advances in mobile telephony have been traced in successive “generations”, starting with the early zeroth-generation (0G) services, such as Bell System’s Mobile Telephone Service and its successor, the Improved Mobile Telephone Service. These 0G systems were not cellular, supported few simultaneous calls, and were very expensive. The very first mobile phones were not really mobile phones at all. They were two-way radios that allowed people like taxi drivers and the emergency services to communicate.
Instead of relying on base stations with separate cells (and the signal being passed from one cell to another), the first mobile phone networks involved one very powerful base station covering a much wider area.
The first handheld cellular mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell and Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing 2 kilograms (4.4 lb). The first commercial automated cellular network (1G) analog was launched in Japan by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone in 1979. This was followed in 1981 by the simultaneous launch of the Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) system in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Several other countries then followed in the early to mid-1980s. These first-generation (1G) systems could support far more simultaneous calls but still used analog cellular technology. In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first commercially available handheld mobile phone.
In 1991, the second-generation (2G) digital cellular technology
was launched in Finland by Radiolinja on the GSM standard. This sparked
competition in the sector as the new operators challenged the incumbent 1G
Ten years later, in 2001, the third generation (3G) was
launched in Japan by NTT DoCoMo on the WCDMA standard. This was followed by
3.5G, 3G+ or turbo 3G enhancements based on the high-speed packet access (HSPA)
family, allowing UMTS networks to have higher data transfer speeds and
By 2009, it had become clear that, at some point, 3G
networks would be overwhelmed by the growth of bandwidth-intensive
applications, such as streaming media. Consequently, the industry began
looking to data-optimized fourth-generation technologies, with the promise of
speed improvements up to ten-fold over existing 3G technologies. The first two
commercially available technologies billed as 4G were the WiMAX standard,
offered in North America by Sprint, and the LTE standard, first offered in
Scandinavia by TeliaSonera.
5G is a technology and term used in research papers and projects to denote the next major phase in mobile telecommunication standards beyond the 4G/IMT-Advanced standards. The term 5G is not officially used in any specification or official document yet made public by telecommunication companies or standardization bodies such as 3GPP, WiMAX Forum or ITU-R. New standards beyond 4G are currently being developed by standardization bodies, but they are at this time seen as under the 4G umbrella, not for a new mobile generation.
Types of mobile phone
There are many types of mobile phones like smart phone and feature phone etc.
Smartphones have several distinguishing features. The International Telecommunication Union measures those with Internet connection, which it calls Active Mobile-Broadband subscriptions (which includes tablets, etc.). In the developed world, smartphones have now overtaken the usage of earlier mobile systems. However, in the developing world, they account for around 50% of mobile telephony.
Feature phone is a term typically used as a word to describe mobile phones which are limited in capabilities in contrast to a modern smartphone. Feature phones typically provide voice calling and text messaging functionality, in addition to basic multimedia and Internet capabilities, and other services offered by the user’s wireless service provider.
A feature phone has additional functions over and above a basic mobile phone which is only capable of voice calling and text messaging. Feature phones and basic mobile phones tend to use a proprietary, custom-designed software and user interface. By contrast, smartphones generally use a mobile operating system that often shares common traits across devices.
To date we use many electric devices that was not exist before normally. One of these devices is computer. It’s also called PC (Personal Computer) and machine by professionals. Basically, computer is a group of instruments. In this group there are many devices and instruments CPU, LED, keyboard and Mouse.
We will talk about mouse which is the basic tool to use computer. Mouse or Computer Mouse is a pointing machine that detects tow-dimensional motion relative to a surface. This motion is typically translated into the motion of a pointer on a display, which allows a smooth control of the graphical user interface.
The first public manifestation of a mouse controlling a computer system was in 1968. Originally wired to a computer, many modern mice are cordless, relying on short-range radio communication with the connected system. Mice originally used a ball rolling on a surface to detect motion, but modern mice often have optical sensors that have no moving parts. In addition to moving a cursor, computer mice have one or more buttons to allow operations such as selection of a menu item on a display. Mice often also feature other elements, such as touch surfaces and “wheels”, which enable additional control and dimensional input.
The first computer mouse was invented by Douglas C. Engelbert. He invented the computer mouse in 1964 — two decades before it would ship with the first Apple Macintosh. The idea occurred to him when attending a computer graphics conference, and he was brainstorming ways to move an onscreen cursor.
Old mouse was slow and dim with limited controls. It had a large shape with big and weird wheel. It needed a plane surface to work. It had been a little bit heavy. So it was not so easy to handle it. Gradually it was developed and now it has a smart shape with various features. To date, with a mouse you have more control than the old time. Now you can even navigate with mouse. So, it was not so easy to handle it. Gradually it developed and now it has a smart shape with various features. To date, with a mouse you have more control than the old time. Now you can even navigate with mouse. More control on cursor while selecting any thing or painting. It made so easy to design and illustrate any thing with your finger tips.
Operating System is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources. It provides common services for computer. Operating systems also used in mobiles and tablets.
Android is one of operating system that used in mobiles and tablets. Android is developed by Google. It is based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software, and is designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. Google also has developed Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars and Android OS for wrist watches.
Android is the most used OS in smartphones all over the world. Its easiness and simplicity makes it more reliable. Android’s version history begins when Google released publicly Android Beta on November 5, 2007. First commercial version, Android 1.0, was released on September 23, 2008. Android is continually developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance, and it has seen several updates to its base operating system since the initial release.Android is the most used OS in smartphones all over the world. Its easiness and simplicity makes it more reliable.
Linux kernel version
September 23, 2008
February 9, 2009
April 27, 2009
September 15, 2009
October 26, 2009
5 – 7
May 20, 2010
December 6, 2010
9 – 10
February 22, 2011
11 – 13
Ice Cream Sandwich
October 18, 2011
14 – 15
3.0.31 – 3.4.39
July 9, 2012
16 – 18
October 31, 2013
19 – 20
November 12, 2014
21 – 22
October 5, 2015
August 22, 2016
24 – 25
August 21, 2017
26 – 27
4.4.107, 4.9.84, and 4.14.42
August 6, 2018
Versions Android 1.0 and 1.1 were not released under
specific code names, although Android 1.1 was unofficially known as Petit Four.
Android code names are confectionery-themed and have been in alphabetical order since 2009’s Android 1.5 Cupcake. The most recent version of Android is Android 9 Pie, which was released in August 2018.
Android “Q” is the upcoming tenth major release and the 17th version of the Android mobile operating system. The final release of Android Q is scheduled for release in the third quarter of 2019.
Android Q features include:
Native support for fold-able phones New and improved UI customizations with changeable themes, icons and fonts (in Stock Android)
Allows users to control when apps have permission to see their location: never, only when the app is in use (running), or all the time (when in the background).
New permissions to access in background photos, video, and audio files
Built-in screen recorder
Background apps can no longer jump into the foreground.
Improved privacy: limited access to non-resettable device identifiers
Sharing shortcuts, which allow sharing content with a contact directly
Floating settings panel, that allow changing system settings directly from apps
Dynamic depth format for photos, which allow changing background blur after taking a photo
Support for the AV1 video codec, the HDR10+ video format, and the Opus audio codec
A native MIDI API, allowing interaction with music controllers
Better support for biometric authentication in apps
Support for the WPA3 Wi-Fi security protocol.
Android is developed by Google until the latest changes and
updates are ready to be released, at which point the source code is made
available to the Android Open Source Project (AOSP), an open source initiative
led by Google. The AOSP code can be found without modification on select
devices, mainly the Nexus and Pixel series of devices. The source code is, in
turn, customized and adapted by original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) to run
on their hardware. Also, Android’s source code does not contain the often-proprietary
device drivers that are needed for certain hardware components. As a result,
most Android devices, including Google’s own, ultimately ship with a
combination of free and open source and proprietary software, with the software
required for accessing Google services falling into the latter category.
Sun is a great source of energy but very little used by our world. It currently fuses about 600 million tons of hydrogen into helium every second, converting 4 million tons of matter into energy every second as a result. This energy, which can take between 10,000 and 170,000 years to escape from its core, is the source of the Sun’s light and heat.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light. On Earth, sunlight is filtered through Earth’s atmosphere, and is obvious as daylight when the Sun is above the horizon. When the direct solar radiation is not blocked by clouds, it is experienced as sunshine, a combination of bright light and radiant heat. When it is blocked by clouds or reflects off other objects, it is experienced as diffused light. The World Meteorological Organization uses the term “sunshine duration” to mean the cumulative time during which an area receives direct irradiance from the Sun of at least 120 watts per square meter. Other sources indicate an “Average over the entire earth” of “164 Watts per square meter over a 24-hour day.
For the first time, to create an electrical charge from sunlight with some materials was observed by Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel. Though the initial solar panels were too inefficient for even simple electric devices. In 1873 Willoughby Smith discovered that the charge could be caused by light hitting selenium. After this discovery, William Grylls Adams and Richard Evans Day published “The action of light on selenium” in 1876, describing the experiment.
However, these solar panels were very inefficient, especially compared to coal-fired power plants. In 1939, Russell Ohl created the solar cell design that is used in many modern solar panels. He patented his design in 1941. In 1954, this design was first used by Bell Labs to create the first commercially viable silicon solar cell.
Each module is ranked by its DC output power under standard test conditions (STC), and typically ranges from 100 to 365 Watts (W). The efficiency of a module determines the area of a module given the same rated output – an 8% efficient 230 W module will have twice the area of a 16% efficient 230 W module. There are a few commercially available solar modules that exceed efficiency of 24%
This much cheaper and easier way to produce electricity. To date it is easy to get efficient solar panels with various rating. You can select as your demand of electricity.
We are launching a new version with a new feature on request by Loaring. Loaring described a confusion: Instead of “scrolling back to top when each slide loads”, is it possible to START at the top? It’s more logic always starting at the top – scrolling is a bit confusing.
Fahad replied: So instead of slow scroll, we can immediately start from top. I will check this possibility in next version.
After some time Fahad released next version with this feature.
Now you can use “scroll to top” option with numeric value. To use this feature go to options check “scroll to top” box and add some value as you want. For example 5 means 5 seconds delay to scroll up. If you change it to 1 so, page will scroll up in 1 second and if you want to remove the delay set the value to 0.
In the case you want to remember your value but you do not want implement at the movement just uncheck “scroll to top” box.
Bootstrap originally named Twitter Blueprint, developed by Mark Otto and Jacob Thornton on Twitter as a framework. Before it various libraries were used for interface development, which led to inconsistencies and a high maintenance burden.
On January 31, 2012, Bootstrap 2 was released, which added built-in support for Glyphicons, various new components and changes to many of exiting components. This version supports responsive web design. This means web pages dynamically adjusts with different devices (desktop, tablet, mobile phone). The next major version Bootstrap 3 was released on August 19, 2013.
Mark Otto announced Bootstrap 4 on October 29, 2014. The first alpha version of Bootstrap 4 was released on August 19, 2015. The first beta version was released on 10 August 2017. Mark suspended work on Bootstrap 3 on September 6, 2016, to free up time to work on Bootstrap 4. Bootstrap 4 was finalized on January 18, 2018.
Bootstrap 4 is latest version, more adjustable and easier. Bootstrap
4 supports the latest versions of the Google Chrome, Firefox, Internet
Explorer, Opera, and Safari (except on Windows).
Bootstrap is a web framework to simplify the development of
web pages. The primary purpose of adding it to a web project is to apply
Bootstrap’s choices of color, size, font and layout to that project. As such,
the primary factor is whether the developers in charge find those choices to
their liking. Once added to a project, Bootstrap provides basic style
definitions for all HTML elements. The end result is a uniform appearance for
prose, tables and form elements across web browsers. Developers can also add
CSS elements defined in Bootstrap for further customization as well.
The most eminent components of Bootstrap are its layout
components, as they affect an entire web page. The basic layout component is
called “Container”, as every other element in the page is placed in
it. Developers can choose between a fixed-width container and a fluid-width
container. While the latter always fills the width of the web page, the former
uses one of the four predefined fixed widths, depending on the size of the
screen showing the page:
It is a very popular proverb “A healthy brain is in healthy
body”. Washing hands plays a central role in our health. This saves us from various
diseases. If we don’t wash hands properly, we might face stomach and throat diseases. Being human we should
keep ourselves neat and clean. Hands should be washed with soap.
The Best Way to Wash Hands
Here’s how to scrub those
germs away. Teach this to your kids — or better yet, wash your hands together
often so they learn how important this good habit is:
Wet your hands with clean, running water (warm or cold). Make sure the water is not too hot for little hands.
Use soap and lather up for about 20 seconds. Antibacterial soap is not a must any soap will do.
Make sure you get in between your fingers on the backs of hands, and under the nails where germs like to hang out. And don’t forget the wrists!
Rinse and dry well with a clean towel
When should we wash hands?
To stop the spread of
germs in your family, make regular hand washing a rule for everyone. It’s
before eating and cooking.
after using the bathroom.
after cleaning around the house.
after touching animals, including family pets.
before and after visiting or taking care of any sick friends or relatives.
after blowing one’s nose, coughing, or sneezing.
after being outside (playing, gardening, walking the dog, etc.)
Benefits of washing hand
Washing hands saves us from illnesses such as common cold, meningitis, bronchitis, the flu, hepatitis A, and many types of diarrhea.
Often an idea comes to mind but after a movement it has gone. And you never can that idea back. Sometimes we want to share our thoughts, but no one has time to listen you and if you have a secret so you cannot share with everyone or you cannot trust anyone. So, get a diary and share with it everything you want. It keeps your secrets as secrets, saves your thoughts and all the things you wrote.
Diary writing is considered a good habit and a hobby too in ancient times. People wrote their daily observation, experience and incidents. Their coming generation told their children those precious and worth experience. They used paper Diaries, they bought from book store or made themselves.
In this fast and modern time no one has time to spend writing diary. To date some people, write diary but they are in a small figure. Modern people manage their diary in modern way. They use a digital diary, online or offline. For a digital diary, just browse your app market and choose your desired diary.
And modern shape of diary is blog writing but is a public forum
and every blog visitor can read it. It is not very secure and safe because your
data is on a risk of determination or hacking. So always choose a diary from
Many people waste their time in several things such as just chatting on social media and wandering here and there without any reason. Some time they also waste other’s time. They don’t schedule their day, as they can’t do any work properly and day passes away.
Good hobbies can save your time, good for your health or can improve your skills. Your hobby introduces your personality. So, it’s very important that which hobby you should choose. Always choose a hobby that beneficent for you. Many people choose book reading, collecting coins, tickets, or gardening etc.
I like book reading in free time. I read many books about literature and history. I also like meaning full stories. I read books regularly every day. I have read almost up to 50 books and continuously reading. Books can improve your personality, thinking and decision power. But it is depending on your choice so, always choose beneficent books.